Difference Between Web 1.0, Web 2.0, & Web 3.0 – With Examples

Like any other technology, the web is evolving and it is evolving rather quickly. Due to lack of standards, there seems to be a little bewilderment regarding its evolution and versions but the most acceptable stages of evolution are as follows:

 

  • Web 1.0
  • Web 2.0
  • Web 3.0 (Also known as Semantic Web)

So, what is the difference between these versions?

Web 1.0: The Internet before 1999, experts call it Read-Only era. The average internet user’s role was limited only to reading the information presented to him. The best examples are millions of static websites which mushroomed during the.com boom. There was no active communication or information flow from consumer of the information to producer of the information.

Web 2.0: The lack of active interaction of common user with the web lead to the birth of Web 2.0. The year 1999 marked the beginning of a Read-Write-Publish era with notable contributions from LiveJournal (Launched in April, 1999) and Blogger (Launched in August, 1999). Now even a non-technical user can actively interact & contribute to the web using different blog platforms. This era empowered the common user with a few new concepts viz. Blog, Social-Media & Video-Streaming. Publishing your content is only a few clicks away! Few remarkable developments of Web 2.0 are Twitter, YouTube, eZineArticles, Flickr and Facebook.

Web 3.0: It seems we have everything whatever we had wished for in Web 2.0, but it is way behind when it comes to intelligence. Perhaps a six year old child has a better analytical abilities than the existing search technologies! Keyword based search of web 2.0 resulted in an information overload. The following attributes are going to be a part of Web 3.0:

  • contextual Search
  • Tailor made Search
  • Personalized Search
  • Evolution of 3D Web
  • Deductive Reasoning

Though Web is yet to see something which can be termed as fairly intelligent but the efforts to achieve this goal has already began. 2 weeks back the Official Google Blog mentioned about how Google search algorithm is now getting intelligent as it can identify many synonyms.

For example Pictures & Photos are now treated as similar in meaning. From now onwards your search query GM crop will not lead you to GM (General Motors) website. Why? Cause, first by synonym identification Google will understand that GM may mean General Motors or Genetically Modified. Then by context i.e. by the keyword crop it will deduce that the user wants information on genetically modified crops and not on General Motors. Similarly, GM car will not lead you to genetically modified crop. Try out yourself to check how this newly added artificial intelligence works in Google. Also, there are many websites built on Web 3.0 which personalizes your search. The web is indeed getting intelligent.

The Strategic Importance of Supply Chain Management (SCM)

1 Introduction:

Logistics supply chain management is one of the most contemporary and challenging concept in today’s business world. Due to increasing global demand of business; transportation, procurement, manufacturing, distribution activities increased tremendously. Now a day, major companies are focusing on SCM to reduce cost and constantly trying to develop new innovative strategy to meet consumer demand to achieve competitive advantage.

2 Definition of Supply Chain Management:

In short, supply chain management means, right product at the right place at the right time at the right measure and at the right quantity. For example, in a supermarket, if the consumer found in a product shelves, there is tag for the product but no product in shelves; what you think? Yes, that is because of poor management of SCM. More precisely, SCM is the management of inbound and outbound logistics process to integrate from procurement, suppliers, manufacturers, warehouse, distributors, transportation, and store in order to meet consumer demands.

3 Why Supply Chain Management is Important?

As global competitions are increasing customer have different choices & needs to satisfy demands. For example, if there are demand for umbrella in rainy season and if you asked supplier to deliver 20,000 umbrellas in summer and expected to receive at the beginning of rainy season; what do think would probably happened?

According to this scenario, say for example, supplier response lately after two weeks, slowly starting procurement and then starting production and supply the goods at the end of rainy season. As a result, in this case the buyer will face tremendous losses.

Let’s just think how can, we change our scenario with an effective strategy: consider the order of umbrella was given at the end of spring to deliver at the end of summer. Supplier response precisely, starting from procurement to distribution utmost efficiently and transported through freight within one week before ending summer. The delivery was on time and arrive within 30th days in summer. The buyer is happy to receive items on time and that allows the buyer to distribute products through distribution channel and, with the right forecasted of demand, buyer captures the market at the right time and making money.

In past manufacturers were known as the drivers of the supply chain as they were scrambling to meet customer demands at rapid pace but now customer is called the driving shots in a long term competitive advantage. To meet the customer demand accordingly, companies are shifting to customer oriented strategy (a bright example would be ‘Dell computer’). Hence, to achieve competitive advantage in the market, it’s necessary to deliver the product at the peak time.

4 Key Drivers of Logistics Supply Chain Management:

From the analysis different journal article, textbook, web research we found the key drivers are differ in according to different perspective, such as Globalisation, Sustainability, Cost-awareness, Customers, Suppliers, Technology and Transportation.

4.1 Globalization:

The external forces (i.e. political, economical, socio-cultural, technological, legal and environmental), local competition, continuous policy and regulations changes, pressure from international brands and all affects to meet the consumer demand in market. Thus, companies are facing huge challenges to meet the requirements globally. Through the product barriers are eliminated, no products are now considering domestic products but due to globalization forces companies tend to change policy and strategy regularly. Besides, with the benefits from globalization now, foreign investor are encouraged to invest in several countries which forces local companies to improve quality of existing products which create huge challenges in procurement, manufacturing, transportation and distribution activities for the companies.

For instance, a company can develop a product in the US, manufacture in China and sell in worldwide, i.e. Apple. This makes a complex and challenging activities for company. Thus, in order to maintain global demand Apple makes strategic choice to build global manufacturing and engineering infrastructure in California, Ireland and Singapore to capture market in US, Europe and Asia. This global strategy from Apple allows the company to take advantages of capturing large market. This strategy, allows Apple to become number ONE innovative company in the world.

4.2 Sustainability:

Creating sustainable chain has a major concern for companies. Constant variable pressure from regulations, geographic in nature, social-economic impact, international policies and principles in general is complex for managing SCM.

For example, green environment (i.e. carbon emission); local government are always imposing regulations which affect on the manufacturer. For instance, production and manufacturing in developed countries like in Europe is huge challenge as because of strict rules and policies of environmental issues compare to underdevelop countries like in Asia. For example, in automobile industry producing vehicles is challenging because of environmental issues in different countries.

4.3 Cost-Awareness:

There are four major decision areas in cost awareness:

4.3.1 a) Location: Convenient feasible location with availability resources including all facilities is the primary step of towards of creating strategic network. However, due to geographical distance and cost, companies often couldn’t able to cope up with customer expectation.

4.3.2 b) Production: Cost fluctuation from production levels are critical issue for strategic decision, such as what product to produce, which plant to allocate and what supplies to get for production.

4.3.3 c) Inventory: Inventory cost varies at different level starting from raw materials to finished goods. Cost is also associated in buffer stock, safety stock or even days of inventory in hands as well as price increases during the periods of inflation affects.

4.3.4 d) Transportation: 30 percent of logistics cost associate with transportation that makes the companies to think about distribution channels about air, ship and road. Air shipment is fast, reliable but expensive while sea shipment is chap but time consuming.

4.4 Customers:

Customers are the most unpredictable variables to determine demand. Frequent changes of demand, new expectation, changing approach of existing product, influential behaviour attitude towards products are all determine to develop a customer-product innovation strategy. For example, Apples starts it business on the bases of computers but after understanding demand of consumer, they launched iPhone, iPad, iPod as means of innovations strategy which satisfy customer but not merely makes the customer delight but introducing facilities like ITunes, music, software application gradually capture the market the whole market.

The example here provides a key learning tool ‘how the company understand its customer to achieve competitive advantage’ which makes us to think what strategy they are following. In Apple strategy most of the iPhone and iPad items (i.e. parts) are outsourcing. More precisely speaking, very few components are created by Apple, hardware is supplied by contract manufacturer and software is supplied by millions of software developer to build various applications for the devices which minimize the cost.

4.5 Suppliers:

Supplier’s motivation is important for quality, cost and delivery expectations of producing product with value as they have greater influential aspect of supplying item. For example, Dell’s direct strategy requires processing orders direct from customer. Dell’s pull strategy to build computers o customer’s specifications and deliver within time. To support this model, Dell asked suppliers to keep inventories within 15 minutes of the manufacturing locations. Virtually all products are made to order. Every two hours, the factory planning system sends out a computerized message to suppliers detailing what parts the plant needs. That means there is almost no inventory of parts or products in the factory and this happen only because of healthy relationship with suppliers.

4.6 Technology:

With the benefit of technology, customer are now becoming more technological oriented focusing on online trading, online shipping, online payment, online information, online virtual chatting, and so on. This technological process has a greater impact on customers and now a day customers are constantly willing to get more information, answers, about their choice, preferences. Dell’s could be an ideal example, how technology impact on business and increase revenue. The success of Dell’s direct sells strategy depends mostly on continuous development of technological aspect as the customer willing to become more connected, assist them to develop cost effective quality product strategy.

4.7 Transportation:

Transport system is the most important economic activity among the components of business logistics systems. Around one third to two thirds of the expenses of enterprises logistics costs are spent on transportation. Beside good transportation is challenging issue to deliver product at right time. Thus, to enable flow of goods from one destination to another and to ensure on time delivery; companies needs to understand the right strategy of supply chain. However, unorganized transportation system, labour force, policies, laws and regulations, uncategorized rooting system is a big hindrance for supply chain solution. If there is suitable transportation network, delivery of the product to the market not ensured supply chain activities will be at risk.

5. Companies Prospective of Strategic Importance of Logistics Supply Chain Management:

5.1 IBM

IBM faces challenges on future supply chain are on cost containment, supply chain visibility, supply chain risk management, customer requirements and globalization. Here cost containment relate to shifting cost of operation rapidly, supply chain visibility includes information and collaboration with external partners where supply chain risk management describe as forecasting customer demands and higher costs, customer requirements influence to identifying customer demands, approach, attitudes towards of product and globalization relates to global issue like geographical distance, cultural barriers, transportation system, feasibility of resources, rules and regulations and so on. Thus, to tackle those issues IBM developed strategy on future supply chain based on “instrumentation”, “interconnectedness” and “intelligence”.

5.1.1 Instrumentation:

Developing RFID (i.e. radio frequency identification) tag, meter, GPS system, tracking reduce the inventory cost and increased visibility. That allows to witness actual fact occurred in supply chain activities. Besides, forecasting of demand becomes much easier as tracking production level and sales level estimated through technology. Again, production, distribution and transportation are controlled and monitored with smart devices to eliminate waste and increasing efficiency. So, with the force of technology IBM creates a sustainable global supply solution by focusing more on customer.

5.1.2 Interconnectedness:

Interconnect with global network i.e. suppliers, manufacturer facilities collaboration with external partners and bodies reduce global issues. Besides, shared decision making with and determine regulatory constitutes from local, regional and international enable to share the risk.

5.1.3 Intelligence:

Effective sophisticated modelling and simulation capabilities allow designing sustainability model, network transportation system, and distribution strategy for IBM. Thus, smarter supply chains allow intelligent modelling to the key driven force.

5.2 Woolworths

Woolworths is an Australian’s largest retailer faces multiple turbulences to find an effective solution of supply chain at the beginning. It faces challenges on sustainability (environmental issues), customer focus, suppliers, transportation system and technology. However, after removing those barriers, it builds strong supply chain strategy not only to meet customer requirements but also expanding business in Australia and New Zealand and to achieve competitive advantage over the market.

The success stories build up with collaborating and strong networking relationship with suppliers, adopting policies, rules and regulations, technology and new innovation (i.e. fresh foods).

The strategy for sustainability point they come up with ‘fresh foods’ and carbon emission. For example, “announcing 40 percent reduction in carbon emissions on project growth levels by 2015, managed 13 percent reduction. This is an estimate saving of about 500,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide again 25 percent minimum reduction in carbon emissions per square meter for new stores Woolworths has now on average reduces in 25.08 percent carbon emissions per square meter” (Our planet, n.d). Besides, introducing new products in the market like Woolworths Pet Insurance, android application applies sustainability in market.

From supplier driving force, Woolworth’s key strategy is to build strong and committed relationship with suppliers that involves in communication, continuous feedback to ensure quality product for customer.

In customer point of view strategy, they are more customers oriented to provide most enjoyable, quality shopping experience to fulfil the demand at the right time at the right place. For this, they focus on centralized distribution model for all inbound and outbound logistics.

In technological point of view, company adopted new technology with keeping pace of technological advancement. For example: EFTPOS system.

5.3 Procter & Gamble

Proctor & Gamble faces challenges on global alliances, constructive network distribution channel, healthy transportation system, inbound and outbound logistics support. For this, they build a supply chain strategy, first to understand target customer according to their satisfaction and loyalty level and then optimizing supply chain (i.e. ensuring product availability at all time). Side by side, focusing on technology like RFID which increases product visibility for better supply chain management. Besides, maintain strong relationship with retailers like Wall-mart and implementing online web support allow the customer to be connected with customer its build premium foundation for sustainable environment.

6 Conclusion:

Thus, globalization, sustainability, cost-awareness, technology, customer, suppliers, transportation are all related to supply chain activities. Now, opportunities of barriers has been minimized which encourage foreign investors to invest, implement and operation. Side by side, in terms of sustainability; collaborating, adopting policies, rules & regulations, technology, transportation allow to build constructive communicative strong relationship with external partners which could be an ideal solution for sustain in global market. Most importantly, focus on customer is vital to enhance growth and for this choosing right strategy for supply chain is essential to ensure right product at the right time at the right order with right measurement.

Good Quality Safety Products Ensure Best Protection

When buying Safety Products, it is important to ensure that they are of the best quality to ensure complete protection to the user. Reputed manufacturers produce a wide variety of protective equipment which is used in various fields where workers are exposed to dangerous situations.

Adequate Warranty on Products

It is a good idea to search for a reliable online dealer to buy Fire Protection Equipment as every work place needs adequate safety measures to avoid a mishap. Customers can check out the website of the manufacturer to get an idea of ​​the various Safety Products available and their details. Manufacturers of such equipment have their own website where they provide pictures of the products along with sizes and cost. If the client wants further information, he can click on the desired product and learn the method of using it.

It is essential to search for companies which manufacture good quality protective equipment and provide warranty on the products. This ensures that the products supplied by the company meet the required safety standards. Also, in case of a problem with the product within the warranty period, the company is bound to replace the product promptly.

Interested clients can choose from a wide variety of Safety Products which are used for domestic, commercial or industrial purposes. In jobs, where workers are exposed to dangerous situations like in construction sites and highway maintenance work, it is essential to provide high visibility vests.

These come in fluorescent shades so that the workers can be easily detected by vehicle drivers on the road. Also, in certain kinds of risky jobs, it is essential to invest in electronic flares which emit a bright light so that vehicle drivers can detect the light from long distances. Such powerful
flares are essential especially at night to inform others about ongoing work at a particular location.

Prompt Online Shipping

In most factories, offices and schools it is essential to install good quality Fire Extinguishing Equipment to avoid a mishap, if a fire accidently breaks out. Accidents caused by fire are common and can happen in any place without prior warning and it is essential to take adequate protection to avoid such mishaps. Such accidents can be caused by electrical short circuits or ignition of explosive material.

Large buildings should have good quality Safety Products to provide protection against fires. Such equipment should be installed in all the floors of the building so that if fire breaks out, it can be immediately controlled. When buying such equipment, it is essential to search the internet for reputed manufacturers. The client should also compare the prices of safety equipment on various online sites to get an idea of ​​the cost. After selecting the desired product, they can place an order on the website itself.

Reputed manufacturers promptly deliver the items on payment of reasonable delivery charges and also offer reasonable discounts on bulk orders. The customer can also become a member of the site and keep himself informed about the latest equipment available.

By checking out and buying good quality Safety Products online, any employer can ensure complete protection of his employees at a reasonable cost.

Five Logo Design Principles Every Graphic Designer Should Follow

Logo design requires more than artistic talent to create an emblem or a brand that will capture the market’s attention. Like in any artistic field, effective logo design follows five fundamental principles that every graphic designer should know. These principles may serve as criteria for judging whether the design effectively conveys the message to its target audience.

Logos should be simple and easily recognizable.

An effective logo design puts together elements in a simple setting that is easily recognizable to anyone who sees it. The sign should be easily identifiable to people from different cultures or cities. The design elements cross boundaries of geography, culture, age and educational background.

Logos should be distinctive and clear.

Aside from simplicity, an effective design should be unique and deliver a clear message to its target audience. The overall design should be easily memorable for anyone who sees it. Too many elements can crowd the design and produce visual noise, which blocks the marketing message the logo tries to convey.

Logos should be timeless.

Another measure of effectiveness is the timelessness of a brand, which appeals to the tastes of future generations. As long as the branding follows the rules of simplicity, distinctiveness and clarity, the logo will survive other eras. For example, the logos of Chanel, Mercedes-Benz, Nike and Shell did not change much through the years. Their classic designs continue to appeal to generations of consumers.

Logos should be versatile.

Logo design makes use of vector art more than photography because of scaling and applicability problems. Logos created with high-definition imaging software scale down to a smaller size without destroying the logo’s design. The use of photographs, however, brings problems of pixelated and skewed images. Thus, all logos use vector graphics for creating images.

An effective logo design should also factor in the way images are transferred from one media to another. A good logo created in the vector format may be used for websites and for marketing and packaging. The colors used should not change in hue when displayed on a website page and on a poster or a streamer in public.

Logos should be appropriate for their intended audience.

Logos should speak to its intended audience. The type of font, the vector images and the colors used should match the demographics of the product’s target market. The meaning should be immediately apparent to the logo’s intended audience. For example, sports logos often signify explosive movement, which reflects athleticism. In another example, children’s products use bright colors and fun fonts to appeal to children.

In general, the type of content in a logo does not necessarily convey the actual products sold or the services rendered by a company or business. A restaurant logo does not need to include food or a software logo does not need to use an image of a computer or laptop to let people know what it is. By way of example, in its logo design Apple uses the image of an apple, which someone obviously has bitten in one corner.